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Armed with the knowledge of how the program works, you can now put that to use with more advanced skills. Prerequisite: Photoshop Level 1 class or equivalent experience. Each lesson has only one of the topics mentioned, so they go much further in depth than previous classes. Lightroom Organize and manage your photos using a complete workflow solution which allows you to make modifications non— destructively. The work you do to your photos is not actually done on the photo itself.
The information is stored in a catalog. This allows you to experiment and try different things without compromising your original photo. Expression Web Create a basic website, assign attributes, hyperlinks and images, and learn document control and placement. Create forms, learn to use predesigned templates and much more. Tie this all up with publishing your site to the Web.
This Web Design Certificate Program is structured for those who wish to become professional web designers. You must successfully complete the six core courses listed below, plus two electives totaling 24 hours 2. Individual classes may be taken without pursuing the program certificate. All classes may not be offered every semester.
This hands—on course introduces you to the exciting world of web page creation for the Internet using the newly developed HTML5 coding standards. Topics include links, images, lists and tables. Some exposure to the new CSS3, as well as the new audio and video tags, is also included.
Prior exposure to a programming language is helpful. Bring a thumb drive to save your work. Adobe Photoshop is the industry standard for image manipulation and preparation. Graphic images used in print, multimedia, and the internet are often created in Photoshop and then imported into other programs.
Get a hands—on introduction to Photoshop, exploring its workspace, tools, palettes, and menu options and discussing their potential uses. No previous Photoshop or art knowledge is required. Prerequisites: Ability to locate, open, and save files in a Windows environment and be comfortable using a mouse. Topics covered include: new form elements, audio and video, scalable vector graphics, the new page structural elements, plus some additional details.
These lab sessions are totally self—paced and project—based. The biggest advantage of the lab sessions is having your instructor there to devote time and attention to your specific questions and concerns. Adobe Illustrator software allows you to create sophisticated artwork for virtually any medium. Industry—standard drawing tools and flexible color controls help you capture your ideas and experiment freely, while timesaving features such as easier— to—access options let you work quickly and intuitively.
Improved performance and tight integration with other Adobe applications also help you produce extraordinary graphics. Prerequisites: Experience with a personal computer. Experience with graphics is helpful, but not required. With Photoshop CS6, you can perfect your photography with breakthrough tools.
Photoshop CS6 offers state—of—the—art tools to help you refine your images and get superior results faster than ever before and boost your productivity at every level. New selection technology helps you easily make complex selections of difficult subjects with superior results, and Adobe Mini Bridge keeps your photos and media close to hand—right inside Photoshop.
Prerequisites: Adobe Photoshop Level 1 or equivalent experience. Ability to use the mouse, know standard menus and commands, and also how to open, save, and close files. Dreamweaver is the number one, third— party web design application on the market today. Thousands of designers use it to create beautiful and dynamic websites for their clients.
Get on the web design fast track! It is recommended that courses be taken in the order listed above. Individual courses may be taken without pursuing the program certificate, and individual course certificates will be awarded.
All courses in this program may not be offered every semester. Arlington Center, Instructor: Dr. Learn to format web pages that adapt from desktop to tablet to phone size using CSS Media Queries as specified in international standards. Discover how to lay out a page in one, two, or three columns that can collapse or rearrange themselves, and also learn all the basic CSS for formatting the typography, colors, and backgrounds of your pages.
Please bring a flash drive so you can save your work. Preparing images and video for the Web, you will create banners and background graphics with appropriate resolution and color space for viewing on screen. You will edit video to add transitions, still images, and titles. The class will also cover basics of image editing and masking with a focus on new features.
Prerequisites: experience working with a personal computer. Please bring an empty thumb drive. Dreamweaver for Effective Web Design Dreamweaver is the tool—of—choice for professionals to create Web sites more quickly than coding by hand. In this fast— paced, hands—on course, you will learn both the strategies of effective web design and the skills for creating sites in Dreamweaver. You will shortcut the design of mobile—ready pages using starter pages and fluid grids.
You will add forms for user input, create templates that permit global changes across a site, and insert interactive media and the new CSS3 transformations. Class will finish with a project in which you create a site of your own design.
Prerequisite: Familiarity with basic computer operations. Learn the best sources of these systems, how to pick the ones that fit your needs, and how to install and customize them——including the popular WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, and more.
Our website is updated frequently. Please check it for the latest course information. Visit: www. This hands—on course introduces you to web page creation for the Internet using the newly developed HTML5 coding standards.
Topics include headings, lists, links, images, and tables. Please bring a thumb drive so you can save your work. Web Design Studio Lab Sharpen your Web design skills by building a full site with support from your instructor coach. This lab is for those who have completed the Web Design Certificate program—or have comparable skills—and want to focus on a real—world project.
The instructor will offer support and will assess your completed project. Bring a project of your own or choose one proposed by the instructor. Prerequisites: All classes in the Web Design Certificate or equivalent experience. Learn data types, expressions, conditional and looping statements, arrays, functions and event handlers.
The program also includes an overview course on basic web management to enable you to learn how to actually publish a small or medium size website in a shared hosting environment. It is ideal for individuals who wish to create sites for small business, non—profit or personal use or as a foundational lead—in to a professional development career with a large business. You may choose to complete the Level I skills certificate only. Teri Murphy created her first Web site as a volunteer while she was vacationing in the Bahamas.
She offered to create a site for a bakery popular with tourists. The baker parlayed the site into a highly successful business of selling beach houses, and he hired Teri as his permanent Web master, requiring her to return each year.
Teri encourages her students to start practicing their new skills immediately by volunteering in a similar manner, and thereby building a portfolio that can lead to freelance clients or a corporate job. No special software is required. You will enhance the pages using Cascading Style Sheets CSS to add color, fonts, and many other special visual effects.
You should have basic knowledge in using either a Macintosh or Windows—based computer. The computer system used in a specific course will depend on lab availability. Introduction to Web Design Want to learn how to create Flash animations, place them on a Web page, and then create a dynamic website?
This comprehensive overview course introduces the fundamental techniques and principles involved in the planning, design, and production of web—based designs.
Essential concepts for both the web and print mediums are covered, including raster versus vector, resolution, color depth, color models, color management, compression, file formats, pixels, resolution, font properties, optimization, anti—aliasing, and half—toning.
If you are new to computer graphics, this course prepares you to use the software more quickly and efficiently, and is highly recommended before you take Illustrator and Photoshop classes. If you have some experience using computer graphics software but have questions about terms and basic concepts, this course answers them for you.
Adobe Photoshop is the imaging industry standard for image manipulation and preparation. This class provides a hands—on introduction to Photoshop, exploring its workspace, tools, palettes, and menu options and discussing their potential uses.
Prerequisite: Ability to locate, open, and save files in a Windows environment and be comfortable using a mouse. In this introduction to Dreamweaver CS6, you harness the power of this professional tool that is the industry standard for creating web pages.
You will also explore basic formatting of web pages, implementing cascading style sheets, and creating dynamic forms. Adobe Illustrator — Level I Learn how to use the popular graphic design application Adobe Illustrator to create graphics and artwork to be used for the web, multimedia, and print. Topics covered include: when to use Illustrator vs.
Advanced Web Design for Designers This is an independent study, instructor— assisted course. Students will be required to build a website from start to finish by following specific procedures. Students will proceed at their own pace. Completion of this final project is required for the Multimedia Web Design Certification. Prerequisites: All courses in certification program plus 24 hours of electives. Topics covered include: shape transformations, advanced text effects, appearance attributes such as transparency and multiple fills, masks and other special purpose objects, enhanced productivity features such as graphic styles, and advanced layer management.
Prerequisite: Adobe Illustrator — Level I or a solid working knowledge of the application. Adobe Photoshop CS6 — Level II Expand your knowledge of the Photoshop workspace by exploring the benefits of tool presets, layer comps, actions, file browser, automate options, and other advanced menu and palette options. Masks, channels, paths, shapes, styles, filters, layer properties, and blending modes will also be used as you learn to combine images seamlessly. To earn the Multimedia Design Track certificate, you must complete 7 required courses and 24 hours of elective courses.
Adobe Illustrator — Level I See page 45 for course details. Flash — Introduction See page 45 for course details. Introduction to Multimedia Media Design Want to learn what it takes to create a digital video or digital slide show and apply it to a DVD? This comprehensive overview course introduces the fundamental techniques and principles involved in the planning, design, and production of dynamic media, such as digital videos and interactive DVDs.
You will learn how to plan, design, and produce creative, interactive materials for DVDs. In this class you receive detailed information concerning the proper planning, preparation, and eventual execution of creating sophisticated interactive DVDs. Through several hands— on DVD projects, you learn how to properly implement both video and still images as part of an interactive DVD.
Topics include: understanding the Adobe Premiere interface, importing digital video clips, editing digital video clips, creating and importing graphics, using digital sound, and creating special effects in Premiere. This hands—on course culminates in the production of a digital video project showcasing the techniques learned. Through lectures, discussions, and hands— on assignments, you develop skills that will enable you to use Premiere to produce creative digital projects.
See page 55 for course details. We cover all the basics — digital and film — including formats, lenses, exposure, lighting, and composition, as well as tips and tricks and creative ideas. You learn how digital cameras work, the terminology of digital photography, and capturing, storage, and archiving of images on your computer.
Field trips near the campus are fun and let you share your adventures, ideas and insights with your classmates. You must provide your own SLR camera, either film or digital, as well as pay for your own film or memory cards and developing. The first two Saturday sessions include afternoon field trips.
Topics include composing the shot, shooting creatively, making photographic inventories, lens selection, use of flash, and more. Go from taking snapshots to professional—quality photographs in just three weeks! Weekly photographic assignments via field trips allow you to gain practical experience that is shared in class.
You must provide a manual or automatic accessory flash separate from the one in your camera. Bring your camera, accessory flash, and manuals to class. See page 56 for course details. Introduction to Web Design See page 53 for course details. Whether you are an artist, video professional, aspiring filmmaker, or digital video home enthusiast, this program will take you to the next level.
To earn this certificate, you must complete seven required and two elective courses. Also, you will create and submit a final project in the Advanced Digital Filmmaking course. Introduction to Multimedia Media Design See page 55 for course details. We discuss how to use and manipulate light and shadow , find and work with models including your friends and family , props, and interesting ideas for portraits that stand the test of time.
Bring your camera to class. Loudoun Campus Instructor: Matthew Randall. Explore the technology used in creating digital productions, focusing on digital hardware and software considerations.
While pre—production procedures that include scriptwriting and storyboarding are touched on, the main emphasis will focus on a discussion of post—production procedures that include non—linear digital editing and applying special visual effects to a digital project. This course is a continuation of the Introduction to Digital Filmmaking course, providing more advanced techniques and procedures involved in single—camera, digital filmmaking.
Storyboarding and nonlinear digital editing procedures that include the shooting and capture of actual video footage will also be emphasized. You will work in production groups in order to produce a final digital project to showcase skills learned in this lecture and hands—on course. Prerequisites: Basic knowledge of Photoshop Layers, Illustrator graphics, and video timecode is recommended. Other video editing software. After participating in lectures, discussions, and hands—on assignments, Advanced Digital Filmmaking you will have the skills to use Final Cut to Working either individually or within a produce creative digital projects.
Everyone will have access to nonlinear Adobe After Effects digital editing hardware and software, Adobe After Effects is regarded as the as well as hardware and software needed industry standard digital video composition for proper output of the digital project.
This course introduces you to its many Prerequisites: Completion of all required facets. Topics covered include: motion certificate courses. The Technology Retraining internship Program TRiP is an intensive part—time, technology training program for people interested in transitioning to an IT career. Most classes are conveniently held in the evenings and on Saturdays, with an emphasis on both classroom and hands—on training. This experience enables you to add actual IT experience to your resume.
In addition, some companies sponsoring internships offer full—time employment at the completion of the internship.
For more information, go to www. The next orientation sessions will be held on Wednesday, January 8, Please register in advance for either orientation session by contacting: David Campbell — —— or Kofi Mitchual — —— Program Requirements: You are required to complete a total of class hours to finish the program. Sixty—six 66 hours are required from the Saturday Core Courses.
The remaining hours may be obtained by choosing elective courses from the list below. All courses listed above may not be offered every semester. Janet S. Beyond excellent. We listened! The certification program will teach students about the equipment, processes, and procedures involved in each phase of oil and gas operations. In addition students will learn the core science, technology, engineering, and mathematics principles.
Workforce Development customized training provides the right training at the right time and place. How does it work? We evaluate your needs.
We recognize your needs are unique, and we identify your challenges and specific requirements. The course prepares participants for a range of entry level positions available, and lays a foundation for rapid career advancement. Upon completion of the eight week course, students will receive two recognized certifications.
The certifications received upon completion of this course are recognized throughout the industry by organizations like the International Association of Drilling Contractors. The certifications are also recognized by national and international industry companies. For information, please call or We deliver the training. Training can be held at your location or ours, with additional options for online delivery. Small Business Administration gives local businesses an expanded array of training options.
Why choose NOVA as your training provider? We focus on practical learning solutions delivered by veteran instructors who have a wealth of training and industry experience. Who have we helped? Clients include many federal and government agencies, credit unions, military organizations, school systems, and many regional companies ranging from small businesses to Fortune corporations.
After not being in school for a number of years, Kim made me want to take more classes. It was a wonderful and stress free experience. On the first day of class you will be given student access and complete instructions. If you DO NOT think that you will pass the background check or the drug screen, do not register for the class.
You will not receive a course refund if you fail the screening process. Use of these materials in an educational course does not represent course sponsorship by the AHA. Any fees charged for such a course, except for a portion of fees needed for AHA course materials; do not represent income to the AHA.
The criteria to pass the background check and drug screen are:. Students must arrive on time for all AHA courses. Students should wear roomy, comfortable clothing to class. Students will sign a health risk statement for physical activity and infection control steps during CPR performance; this will be provided to you on the day of class.
Students who successfully complete the written exam and practical skills testing will receive an American Heart Association Course Completion Card that is valid for two years. This course provides First Aid training for laypersons, teachers, daycare providers, law enforcement, healthcare providers, designated first responders, and individuals needing credentialed training for job or regulatory requirements.
During the course, an AHA instructor conducts video—based lessons and works with you to complete your first aid skills practice.
After completion, you will receive a Student ID. If it has been more than three years since you have taken classes at NOVA, you will need to submit a new application, using your current Student ID , to update your records before registering.
Submit your financial award letter and student ID via email to kjennings nvcc. You will then be registered. The web—based, self—directed course teaches you critical skills and knowledge needed to respond to and manage a first aid or sudden cardiac arrest emergency in the first few minutes until emergency medical services EMS arrives.
Content includes how to treat bleeding, sprains, broken bones, shock and other first aid emergencies, as well as perform CPR and use an AED.
Successful completion of this course includes all three 3 parts: Part 1: online portion — www. This course provides BLS CPR training with AED for healthcare providers, healthcare students, designated first responders, and individuals needing credentialed training for job or regulatory requirements.
Successful completion of this course includes all three 3 parts:. Part 1: o nline portion— www. E—mail April at CEHealth nvcc. Enroll by Appointment Only.
Thank you so much! The course was clear and I learned how to save lives. I also liked the sense of humor. Class was not only useful, but also fun! Advanced Cardiac Life Support Provider ACLS This 2—day course enables healthcare providers to enhance their skills in treating adult victims of cardiac arrest or other cardiopulmonary emergencies. This 2—day course enables healthcare providers to enhance their skills in treating pediatric victims of cardiac arrest or other cardiopulmonary emergencies.
These will be collected for the course record. This program is intended for students who want to prepare for an exciting, challenging and rewarding career in healthcare. This program will train students to assist physicians by performing functions related to the clinical responsibilities of a medical office. Instruction includes phlebotomy, EKG and various other procedures. Books are included in the tuition. A basic understanding of human anatomy and physiology, current knowledge and recognition of ECG rhythms.
Pre—course work will be sent prior to class via e—mail. Prestonedgem 24 Nov , Prestonedgem 23 Nov , Miguelrab 23 Nov , Prestonedgem 22 Nov , Davidhit 22 Nov , Prestonedgem 21 Nov , Prestonedgem 20 Nov , Prestonedgem 19 Nov , LouisGlymn 19 Nov , Prestonedgem 18 Nov , LouisGlymn 18 Nov , Kelople 18 Nov , LouisGlymn 17 Nov , LouisGlymn 16 Nov , LouisGlymn 15 Nov , Bruisus 15 Nov , LouisGlymn 14 Nov , ChrisGliff 14 Nov , LouisGlymn 13 Nov , LouisGlymn 12 Nov , AlfredoPiort 12 Nov , LouisGlymn 11 Nov , Prestonedgem 10 Nov , LouisGlymn 10 Nov , Louiedrync 10 Nov , RonnieRob 09 Nov , Peter Tino.
Antonio J. Ronaldo Menezes. Publisher : Springer Cham. Series ISSN : Edition Number : 1. Number of Pages : XXI, Skip to main content. Specifically, our experiments verify that acda-boosted pre-trained language models that employ our learning optimization techniques, consistently outperform the respective fine-tuned baseline pre-trained language models across both benchmark datasets and adversarial examples. Skill Classification SC is the task of classifying job competences from job postings.
This work is the first in SC applied to Danish job vacancy data. We study two setups: The zero-shot and few-shot classification setting. Our results show RemBERT significantly outperforms all other models in both the zero-shot and the few-shot setting. Legal texts are often difficult to interpret, and people who interpret them need to make choices about the interpretation. To improve transparency, the interpretation of a legal text can be made explicit by formalising it.
However, creating formalised representations of legal texts manually is quite labour-intensive. In this paper, we describe a method to extract structured representations in the Flint language van Doesburg and van Engers, from natural language. Automated extraction of knowledge representation not only makes the interpretation and modelling efforts more efficient, it also contributes to reducing inter-coder dependencies. The Flint language offers a formal model that enables the interpretation of legal text by describing the norms in these texts as acts, facts and duties.
To extract the components of a Flint representation, we use a rule-based method and a transformer-based method. In the transformer-based method we fine-tune the last layer with annotated legal texts. This indicates that the transformer-based method is a promising approach of automatically extracting Flint frames.
Spelling correction utilities have become commonplace during the writing process, however, many spelling correction utilities suffer due to the size and quality of dictionaries available to aid correction. Many terms, acronyms, and morphological variations of terms are often missing, leaving potential spelling errors unidentified and potentially uncorrected. This research describes the implementation of WikiSpell, a dynamic spelling correction tool that relies on the Wikipedia dataset search API functionality as the sole source of knowledge to aid misspelled term identification and automatic replacement.
Instead of a traditional matching process to select candidate replacement terms, the replacement process is treated as a natural language information retrieval process harnessing wildcard string matching and search result statistics.
The aims of this research include: 1 the implementation of a spelling correction algorithm that utilizes the wildcard operators in the Wikipedia dataset search API, 2 a review of the current spell correction tools and approaches being utilized, and 3 testing and validation of the developed algorithm against the benchmark spelling correction tool, Hunspell.
The key contribution of this research is a robust, dynamic information retrieval-based spelling correction algorithm that does not require prior training. Results of this research show that the proposed spelling correction algorithm, WikiSpell, achieved comparable results to an industry-standard spelling correction algorithm, Hunspell.
It is the first of its kind for Commodity News and serves to contribute towards resource building for economic and financial text mining. This paper describes the data collection process, the annotation methodology, and the event typology used in producing the corpus.
Firstly, a seed set of news articles were manually annotated, of which a subset of 25 news was used as the adjudicated reference test set for inter-annotator and system evaluation. The inter-annotator agreement was generally substantial, and annotator performance was adequate, indicating that the annotation scheme produces consistent event annotations of high quality.
Subsequently, the dataset is expanded through 1 data augmentation and 2 Human-in-the-loop active learning. The resulting corpus has news articles with approximately 11k events annotated.
As part of the active learning process, the corpus was used to train basic event extraction models for machine labeling; the resulting models also serve as a validation or as a pilot study demonstrating the use of the corpus in machine learning purposes. To cope with the COVID pandemic, many jurisdictions have introduced new or altered existing legislation.
Even though these new rules are often communicated to the public in news articles, it remains challenging for laypersons to learn about what is currently allowed or forbidden since news articles typically do not reference underlying laws.
We investigate an automated approach to extract legal claims from news articles and to match the claims with their corresponding applicable laws. For both tasks, we create and make publicly available the data sets and report the results of initial experiments. We obtain promising results with Transformer-based models that achieve Furthermore, we discuss challenges of current machine learning approaches for legal language processing and their ability for complex legal reasoning tasks.
Argumentation mining is a growing area of research and has several interesting practical applications of mining legal arguments. Support and Attack relations are the backbone of any legal argument.
However, there is no publicly available dataset of these relations in the context of legal arguments expressed in court judgements. In this paper, we focus on automatically constructing such a dataset of Support and Attack relations between sentences in a court judgment with reasonable accuracy. We propose three sets of rules based on linguistic knowledge and distant supervision to identify such relations from Indian Supreme Court judgments.
The first rule set is based on multiple discourse connectors, the second rule set is based on common semantic structures between argumentative sentences in a close neighbourhood, and the third rule set uses the information about the source of the argument. We also explore a BERT-based sentence pair classification model which is trained on this dataset.
We release the dataset of sentence pairs – Support precision We believe that this dataset and the ideas explored in designing the linguistic rules and will boost the argumentation mining research for legal arguments.
It contains more than one million tokens with annotation covering three classes: person, location, and organization. The dataset around K tokens mostly contains manual gold annotations in three different domains news, literature, and political discourses and a semi-automatically annotated part.
The multi-domain feature is the main strength of the present work, offering a resource which covers different styles and language uses, as well as the largest Italian NER dataset with manual gold annotations.
It represents an important resource for the training of NER systems in Italian. Texts and annotations are freely downloadable from the Github repository. Question answering QA is one of the most common NLP tasks that relates to named entity recognition, fact extraction, semantic search and some other fields.
In industry, it is much valued in chat-bots and corporate information systems. It is also a challenging task that attracted the attention of a very general audience at the quiz show Jeopardy! In this article we describe a Jeopardy! The data set includes , quiz-like questions with 29, from the Russian analogue of Jeopardy! Own Game. We observe its linguistic features and the related QA-task.
We conclude about perspectives of a QA challenge based on the collected data set. In this paper, we present a new corpus of clickbait articles annotated by university students along with a corresponding shared task: clickbait articles use a headline or teaser that hides information from the reader to make them curious to open the article. We therefore propose to construct approaches that can automatically extract the relevant information from such an article, which we call clickbait resolving.
We show why solving this task might be relevant for end users, and why clickbait can probably not be defeated with clickbait detection alone. Additionally, we argue that this task, although similar to question answering and some automatic summarization approaches, needs to be tackled with specialized models. We analyze the performance of some basic approaches on this task and show that models fine-tuned on our data can outperform general question answering models, while providing a systematic approach to evaluate the results.
We hope that the data set and the task will help in giving users tools to counter clickbait in the future. VALET departs from legacy approaches predicated on cascading finite-state transducers, instead offering direct support for mixing heterogeneous information—lexical, orthographic, syntactic, corpus-analytic—in a succinct syntax that supports context-free idioms.
We show how a handful of rules suffices to implement sophisticated matching, and describe a user interface that facilitates exploration for development and maintenance of rule sets. Arguing that rule-based information extraction is an important methodology early in the development cycle, we describe an experiment in which a VALET model is used to annotate examples for a machine learning extraction model.
While learning to emulate the extraction rules, the resulting model generalizes them, recognizing valid extraction targets the rules failed to detect. Proper recognition and interpretation of negation signals in text or communication is crucial for any form of full natural language understanding.
It is also essential for computational approaches to natural language processing. In this study we focus on negation detection in Dutch spoken human-computer conversations.
Since there exists no Dutch dialogue corpus annotated for negation we have annotated a Dutch corpus sample to evaluate our method for automatic negation detection. Our results show that adding in-domain training material improves the results. We show that we can detect both negation cues and scope in Dutch dialogues with high precision and recall.
We provide a detailed error analysis and discuss the effects of cross-lingual and cross-domain transfer learning on automatic negation detection. The Linguistic Data Consortium was founded in to solve the problem that limitations in access to shareable data was impeding progress in Human Language Technology research and development.
At the time, DARPA had adopted the common task research management paradigm to impose additional rigor on their programs by also providing shared objectives, data and evaluation methods. Early successes underscored the promise of this paradigm but also the need for a standing infrastructure to host and distribute the shared data. An open question for the center would be its role in other kinds of research beyond data development. Over its 30 years history, LDC has performed multiple roles ranging from neutral, independent data provider to multisite programs, to creator of exploratory data in tight collaboration with system developers, to research group focused on data intensive investigations.
Through their consistent involvement in EU-funded projects, ELRA and ELDA have contributed to improve the access to multilingual information in the context of the pandemic, develop tools for the de-identification of texts in the legal and medical domains, support the EU eTranslation Machine Translation system, and set up a European platform providing access to both resources and services. Ethical issues in Language Resources and Language Technology are often invoked, but rarely discussed.
This is at least partly because little work has been done to systematize ethical issues and principles applicable in the fields of Language Resources and Language Technology.
This paper provides an overview of ethical issues that arise at different stages of Language Resources and Language Technology development, from the conception phase through the construction phase to the use phase. Based on this overview, the authors propose a tentative taxonomy of ethical issues in Language Resources and Language Technology, built around five principles: Privacy, Property, Equality, Transparency and Freedom.
The authors hope that this tentative taxonomy will facilitate ethical assessment of projects in the field of Language Resources and Language Technology, and structure the discussion on ethical issues in this domain, which may eventually lead to the adoption of a universally accepted Code of Ethics of the Language Resources and Language Technology community.
Firstly, in a contrastive manner, by considering two major international conferences, LREC and ACL, and secondly, in a diachronic manner, by inspecting nearly 14, articles over a period of time ranging from to for LREC and from to for ACL.
For this purpose, we created a corpus from LREC and ACL articles from the above-mentioned periods, from which we manually annotated nearly 1, We then developed two classifiers to automatically annotate the rest of the corpus. Interestingly, over the considered periods, the results appear to be stable for the two conferences, even though a rebound in ACL could be a sign of the influence of the blog post about the BenderRule.
While aspect-based sentiment analysis of user-generated content has received a lot of attention in the past years, emotion detection at the aspect level has been relatively unexplored. Moreover, given the rise of more visual content on social media platforms, we want to meet the ever-growing share of multimodal content.
Additionally, we take the first steps in investigating the utility of multimodal coreference resolution in an ABEA framework. The presented dataset consists of 4, comments on images and is annotated with aspect and emotion categories and the emotional dimensions of valence and arousal.
Our preliminary experiments suggest that ABEA does not benefit from multimodal coreference resolution, and that aspect and emotion classification only requires textual information. However, when more specific information about the aspects is desired, image recognition could be essential.
Sentiment analysis is one of the most widely studied tasks in natural language processing. While BERT-based models have achieved state-of-the-art results in this task, little attention has been given to its performance variability across class labels, multi-source and multi-domain corpora.
In this paper, we present an improved state-of-the-art and comparatively evaluate BERT-based models for sentiment analysis on Italian corpora. The proposed model is evaluated over eight sentiment analysis corpora from different domains social media, finance, e-commerce, health, travel and sources Twitter, YouTube, Facebook, Amazon, Tripadvisor, Opera and Personal Healthcare Agent on the prediction of positive, negative and neutral classes.
Our findings suggest that BERT-based models are confident in predicting positive and negative examples but not as much with neutral examples. We release the sentiment analysis model as well as a newly financial domain sentiment corpus.
Sentiment analysis is one of the most widely studied applications in NLP, but most work focuses on languages with large amounts of data. We propose text collection, filtering, processing and labeling methods that enable us to create datasets for these low-resource languages. We evaluate a range of pre-trained models and transfer strategies on the dataset. We find that language-specific models and language-adaptive fine-tuning generally perform best. We release the datasets, trained models, sentiment lexicons, and code to incentivize research on sentiment analysis in under-represented languages.
This paper presents a scheme for emotion annotation and its manual application on a genre-diverse corpus of texts written in French. The methodology introduced here emphasizes the necessity of clarifying the main concepts implied by the analysis of emotions as they are expressed in texts, before conducting a manual annotation campaign.
After explaining whatentails a deeply linguistic perspective on emotion expression modeling, we present a few NLP works that share some common points with this perspective and meticulously compare our approach with them. We then highlight some interesting quantitative results observed on our annotated corpus. The most notable interactions are on the one hand between emotion expression modes and genres of texts, and on the other hand between emotion expression modes and emotional categories.
These observation corroborate and clarify some of the results already mentioned in other NLP works on emotion annotation. In this paper we address the question of how to integrate grammar and lexical-semantic knowledge within a single and homogeneous knowledge graph.
We introduce a graph modelling of grammar knowledge which enables its merging with a lexical-semantic network. Such an integrated representation is expected, for instance, to provide new material for language-related graph embeddings in order to model interactions between Syntax and Semantics. Our base model relies on a phrase structure grammar. The phrase structure is accounted for by both a Proof-Theoretical representation, through a Context-Free Grammar, and a Model-Theoretical one, through a constraint-based grammar.
The constraint types colour the grammar layer with syntactic relationships such as Immediate Dominance, Linear Precedence, and more. We detail a creation process which infers the grammar layer from a corpus annotated in constituency and integrates it with a lexical-semantic network through a shared POS tagset.
We implement the process, and experiment with the French Treebank and the JeuxDeMots lexical-semantic network. State-of-the-art approaches for metaphor detection compare their literal – or core – meaning and their contextual meaning using metaphor classifiers based on neural networks.
However, metaphorical expressions evolve over time due to various reasons, such as cultural and societal impact. Metaphorical expressions are known to co-evolve with language and literal word meanings, and even drive, to some extent, this evolution. This poses the question of whether different, possibly time-specific, representations of literal meanings may impact the metaphor detection task. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that examines the metaphor detection task with a detailed exploratory analysis where different temporal and static word embeddings are used to account for different representations of literal meanings.
Our experimental analysis is based on three popular benchmarks used for metaphor detection and word embeddings extracted from different corpora and temporally aligned using different state-of-the-art approaches. The results suggest that the usage of different static word embedding methods does impact the metaphor detection task and some temporal word embeddings slightly outperform static methods. However, the results also suggest that temporal word embeddings may provide representations of the core meaning of the metaphor even too close to their contextual meaning, thus confusing the classifier.
Overall, the interaction between temporal language evolution and metaphor detection appears tiny in the benchmark datasets used in our experiments. This suggests that future work for the computational analysis of this important linguistic phenomenon should first start by creating a new dataset where this interaction is better represented. Task embeddings are low-dimensional representations that are trained to capture task properties.
We fit a single transformer to all MetaEval tasks jointly while conditioning it on learned embeddings. The resulting task embeddings enable a novel analysis of the space of tasks. We then show that task aspects can be mapped to task embeddings for new tasks without using any annotated examples. Predicted embeddings can modulate the encoder for zero-shot inference and outperform a zero-shot baseline on GLUE tasks. The provided multitask setup can function as a benchmark for future transfer learning research.
Automatic Term Extraction ATE is a key component for domain knowledge understanding and an important basis for further natural language processing applications. Even with persistent improvements, ATE still exhibits weak results exacerbated by small training data inherent to specialized domain corpora.
However, no systematic evaluation of ATE has been conducted so far. Experiments have been conducted on four specialized domains in three languages. The obtained results suggest that BERT can capture cross-domain and cross-lingual terminologically-marked contexts shared by terms, opening a new design-pattern for ATE.
We approach aspect-based argument mining as a supervised machine learning task to classify arguments into semantically coherent groups referring to the same defined aspect categories. As an exemplary use case, we introduce the Argument Aspect Corpus – Nuclear Energy that separates arguments about the topic of nuclear energy into nine major aspects. Since the collection of training data for further aspects and topics is costly, we investigate the potential for current transformer-based few-shot learning approaches to accurately classify argument aspects.
The best approach is applied to a British newspaper corpus covering the debate on nuclear energy over the past 21 years. Our evaluation shows that a stable prediction of shares of argument aspects in this debate is feasible with 50 to training samples per aspect. Moreover, we see signals for a clear shift in the public discourse in favor of nuclear energy in recent years. This revelation of changing patterns of pro and contra arguments related to certain aspects over time demonstrates the potential of supervised argument aspect detection for tracking issue-specific media discourses.
Vocabulary learning is vital to foreign language learning. Correct and adequate feedback is essential to successful and satisfying vocabulary training. However, many vocabulary and language evaluation systems perform on simple rules and do not account for real-life user learning data. This work introduces Multi-Language Vocabulary Evaluation Data Set MuLVE , a data set consisting of vocabulary cards and real-life user answers, labeled indicating whether the user answer is correct or incorrect.
The data source is user learning data from the Phase6 vocabulary trainer. The data set contains vocabulary questions in German and English, Spanish, and French as target language and is available in four different variations regarding pre-processing and deduplication. The data set is available on the European Language Grid.
The detection and extraction of abbreviations from unstructured texts can help to improve the performance of Natural Language Processing tasks, such as machine translation and information retrieval. However, in terms of publicly available datasets, there is not enough data for training deep-neural-networks-based models to the point of generalising well over data. We performed manual validation over a set of instances and a complete automatic validation for this dataset.
We then used it to generate several baseline models for detecting abbreviations and long forms. The best models achieved an F1-score of 0. The challenges with NLP systems with regards to tasks such as Machine Translation MT , word sense disambiguation WSD and information retrieval make it imperative to have a labelled idioms dataset with classes such as it is in this work.
In particular, the following classes are labelled in the dataset: metaphor, simile, euphemism, parallelism, personification, oxymoron, paradox, hyperbole, irony and literal. We obtain an overall inter-annotator agreement IAA score, between two independent annotators, of Many past efforts have been limited in the corpus size and classes of samples but this dataset contains over 20, samples with almost 1, cases of idioms with their meanings from 10 classes or senses.
The corpus may also be extended by researchers to meet specific needs. Classification experiments performed on the corpus to obtain a baseline and comparison among three common models, including the BERT model, give good results. We also make publicly available the corpus and the relevant codes for working with it for NLP tasks. Spellchecking text written by language learners is especially challenging because errors made by learners differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from errors made by already proficient learners.
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